Week 1:

1-1 Introduction

KEY WORDS: *World Health Organization, **Ghana Center for Diseases Control, ***Physical Activity, ****Physical Inactivity, *****Organized Sports, ******Intensity

The provision of quality physical education is in decline across all regions in the country. Rising levels of physical inactivity, along with the substantial associated disease risk, have been described as a pandemic by the Ghana Center for Diseases Control (GCDC) as well as the World Health Organization (W.H.O). Cut-backs in physical education and organized sports provision in school curricula will only increase the substantial disease risk associated with physical inactivity.

Besides the health concerns, it is essential that the Ministry of Education (MoE), and government as a whole, take policy action to ensure the subjects (physical education and organized sports) secure their rightful places in school curricula and beyond. This way, children and youth can benefit from exposure to the undisputed power and the overwhelming research support for physical activity (PA) in improving academic performance, sports performance and healthy life.

Physical Education must place PA at the centre of operations and to challenge teachers to use and apply information that is well grounded in PA research. this will ensure quality curriculum and overall programme development and instruction. The quantity of research evidence on PA is enormous and exceedingly convincing. Sadly, the PA research in Ghana reveals overall low PA level among children and youth. Less than 40% of children and youth engage in any purposeful amounts of PA for three or more days in a week and for sixty minutes a day at any meaningful level of intensity.

Despite the low levels of overall PAs among Ghanaian children, little work has been directed toward applying PA research to promote quality teaching, academic achievement, healthy lifestyle and sports performance excellence.

Definition of key Words

*World Health organization
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland

**Ghana Center for Diseases Control
CDC increases the health security of our nation. As the nation’s health protection agency, CDC saves lives and protects people from health threats. CDC conducts critical science and provides health information that protects our nation against expensive and dangerous health threats, and responds when these arise

***Physical Activity
Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure

****Physical Inactivity
Physical inactivity is a term used to identify people who do not get the recommended level of regular physical activity. For example, 30-60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to four times per week to promote cardiovascular fitness

*****Organized Sports
Organised sports is all forms of usually competitive physical activity, which, through casual or organized participation, aim to increase, use, maintain, or improve physical ability and skills while providing entertainment to participants. Participation in organized sports provides an opportunity for children and youth to increase their physical activity levels and develop physical and social skills

******Intensity
Intensity refers to how much energy is expended when exercising. Intensity is the amount of physical power (expressed as a percentage of the maximal oxygen consumption) that the body uses when performing an activity. For example, exercise intensity defines how hard the body has to work to walk a mile in 20 minutes. It can be determined by the amount of increase in heart beat per minute beyond resting pulse